13,700M BP Big Bang, based on background radiation, red shift of light, and model simulations (13,700M BP, or 13.7B BP)
13,500M BP First stars formed based on similar data and simulations
4,600M BP Our Solar System condensed from a 3rd generation dust cloud (13.7/4.6 = 2.98) in the Milky Way galaxy
enriched in heavy elements by previous supernova explosions.
4,500M BP Earth formed with a surface of molten lava and an atmosphere with no oxygen (reduced iron).
3,500M BP Bacteria began building stromatolites and producing free oxygen by photosynthesis.
2,300M BP Enough oxygen to create an ozone layer which reduced UV oxidation of iron.
2,000M BP Photosynthetic bacteria had produced enough oxygen to oxidize most surface iron.
†† Methane was being oxidized to carbon dioxide, cooling the Earth.
850-630M BP Cryogenian Period of Precambrian Era contained the coldest and most extensive ice ages known
with glacial deposits at tropical latitudes. Models indicate that this could occur if all continental
masses converged in a super continent and were subjected to weathering which removes CO2
††† from the atmosphere cooling the Earth. This period has been called the snowball Earth.
542M BP Most life forms died ending the Precambrian Era as indicated by a drop in C13/C14 ratio. This
corresponds to a layer of volcanic ash containing zircons which also date to 542 mya. A super
continent tends to cause volcanic activity under it which breaks up the super continent and
releases ash and CO2 into the atmosphere.If significant ash is injected into the stratosphere,
there will be initial cooling followed by warming by atmospheric CO2.Multicellular life
forms and fossils (e.g. Trilobites) became common in the warmer Cambrian (542-488 Mya).
65M BP Most dinosaurs died, after a large meteorite hit in the Bay of Yucatan injecting a large amount of
dust (and iridium) into the stratosphere cooling the atmosphere.
4.4M BP Ardipithecus ramidus, early hominid in East Africa (Ethiopia, Awash Valley), BP = before present
4.1M BP Australopithecus anamensis, Awash Valley, Ethiopia, evolved from, or with, A. ramidus
3.6M BP Australopithecus afarensis (example, Lucy) evolved from, or with, A. anamensis
2.5M BP Homo habilis evolved from, or with, A. afarensis, stood stooped, and made the first stone
†† tools, East Africa, from 2.5 million to 1.6 million BP
1.8M BP Homo erectus, 1.8 million to 50,000 BP (longest survival to date), stood upright from Africa
1.3M BP First hand axes
1.0M BP Homo erectus in Southeast Asia (China and Java)
800,000 BP Homo heidelbergensis 800,000 to 350,000 BP and may be a common ancestor of
††† H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens in Africa based on some genetic data
600,000 BP Yellowstone hotspot super volcano erupted
460,000 BP Earliest controlled fire site, China
380,000 BP Earliest artificial shelter, Europe
200,000 BP Homo neanderthalensis 200,000 to 28,000 BP in Europe.
200,000 BP Mitochondrial Eve (Homo sapiens) evolved in Africa
150,000 BP Early migration of Homo sapiens to eastern Mediterranean coast and beyond.
73,500 BP Mt. Toba, Sumatra explodes (largest in the last 23 million years) drops temp 11F
and reduces African H. sapiens to 4,000 to 10,000 breeding females based on genetic population estimates.
45,000 BP Migration from Middle East to Southern Europe
40,000 BP Migration from Middle East to South Central Asia
35,000 BP Migration from Central Asia to South East Asia
35,000 BP Migration from Central Asia to North Central Asia
30,000 BP Migration from North Central Asia to Europe. Homo neanderthalis disappears
30,000 BP Migration from South Central Asia to India
30,000 BP Migration from Southeast Asia and Taiwan to New Guinea, Australia, and the Solomon Islands
30,000 BP Earliest rock art, Australia
23,000 BP Grinding stones with starch residue found in China and Middle East (Current World Archaeology, June/July, 2013)
20,000 BP Migration from North Central Asia to Siberia and Alaska
15-8,000 BP Migration from Alaska to North and South America by land bridge
10,900 BP Most large North American mammals die, small iridium peak, hexagonal micro diamonds,
†† suggesting a comet exploded causing a 1200 year cold spell known as the Younger Dryas.
10,000 BP Migration of Jomon from East Asia to Japan
8000 BP Migration of Middle Eastern farmers to coastal areas and central river valleys and plains of Europe
†† (17% of current Europeans have these gene markers)
8000 BP Migration from Western Asia to Central Asia
8000 BP Migration from South East Asia to North East Asia
5700 BC Mt. Mazama volcano exploded leaving Crater Lake, Oregon
5600 BC†† Mediterranean cut Bosporus into the Black Sea flooding the area
5000 BC Farming in Central Asia and in Central and Southern Europe
3800 BC Farming in England
3000 BC First cuneiform writing in Mesopotamia
2500 BC Great pyramid of Khufu or Cheops at Giza, Egypt
2000 BC Stonehenge, England
1625 BC†† Thera (Santorini) erupts, destroying early Crete and leading to rise of Mycenae and
†† New Egyptian Empire.
1400 BC First phonetic alphabet in Greece
1000 BC Migration from the Solomons to Borneo, Easter Is., Hawaii (500 AD), reaching
†† New Zealand around 800 AD
800-700 BC Homer, Greek poet (Iliad, Odyssey)
500 BC Migrations by Yayoi from Korea to the central islands of Japan
525-456 BC Aeschylus, Greek tragic playwrite (Prometheus Bound)
496-406 BC Sophocles, Greek tragic playwrite (Antigone)
484-406 BC Euripides, Greek tragic playwrite (Medea)
484-425 BC Herodotus, Greek historian
470-399 BC Socrates, Greek philosopher
450-388 BC Aristophanes, Greek comic playwrite (Lysistrata)
428-348 BC Plato, Greek philosopher
384-322 BC Aristotle, Greek philosopher
ca 300 BC Euclid, Greek geometer
278-212 BC Archimedes, Greek mathematician and inventor
106-43 BC Cicero, Roman statesman and historian
70-19 BC Vergil, Roman poet (Aeneid)
31 BC Octavian (Augustus) defeated Cleopatra and Antony off Actium
1 AD
23-79 AD††††† Pliny the Elder, Roman historian killed at Pompeii
37-100 Josephus, Jewish historian (compare with Bible)
46-119 Plutarch, Greek historian of early Rome
56-120 Tacitus, Roman historian
61-113 Pliny the Younger, Roman historian
79 Vesuvius erupts, burying Pompeii, August 24
122 Hadrianís Wall constructed in northern England
260-339 Eusebius of Caesarea, early church historian
378 Fire is Born of Teotihuacan (Mexico City area) overruns Tikal (Guatamala) beginning Maya growth.
410 Germanic tribes sack Rome ending the western Roman Empire.Viking and Germanic invasions of
†† England and northern Europe follow
535 Krakatau (between Java and Sumatra), major eruption, a decade of cold, dry weather
750 Teotihuacan is burned in Mexico
1066 Norman (French) conquest of England
1250 Renaissance begins in Florence, Italy
1260 Mongol invasions of Europe and China peak under Kublai Kahn
1265-1321 Dante Alighieri, Italian poet (Divine Comedy)
1271-1295 Marco Polo traveled (or summarized others) from Venice to China and back.
1348-1350 Black plague first enters Europe
1368-1644 Great Wall of China, present form dates from Ming dynasty
1452-1519 Leonardo da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, and engineer
1473-1543 Copernicus, Polish astronomer, argued that the earth revolves around the sun
1475-1564 Michelangelo, Italian sculptor, painter, and architect
1564-1616 Shakespeare, English playwrite and poet
1586 Mt. Kelut, Java, erupts
1596-1627 Kepler's laws of planetary motion (Brahe's data)††††††††††††††
1598-1680 Bernini, Italian sculptor, painter, and architect
1609-1638 Galileo uses a telescope, 30X, to find four moons of Jupiter. He also finds that all dense objects fall
†† at the same rate.†††
1623 Francis Bacon argues from specifics to general statements, logical induction
1632-1723 Leeuwenhoek, microscopes to 270X and discovered many microorganisms
1637 Descartes, analytical geometry
1664-1704 Newton, calculus and law of gravity
1755?††††† Flush toilet (Thomas Crapper)
1769 Practical steam engine (Watt)††
1788 US Constitution ratified on 6/21
1791 US Bill of Rights ratified (first nine amendments)
1807 Steamship (Fulton's Clermont)
1814-1859 Spectroscopy, absorption and emission lines characteristic of hot atoms (Fraunhofer, Kirchoff)
1815 Tambora (Indonesia) erupts, cooling climate, April 10-12
1822-1895 Pasteur, fermentations are caused by living organisms which do not appear spontaneously,
†† but by reproduction
1829 Steam locomotive (Stephenson's Rocket)
1846 Neptune discovered on 9/23 (Galle, Leverrier)
1859 Darwin publishes 'Origin of Species'
1859 Mendel publishes on classical genetics†††††
1861-1865 US Civil War††
1865 Maxwell's Electromagnetic Equations
1867 Typewriter, Christopher Sholes, shift key added in 1878, electric in about 1935
1868 Helium discovered by solar spectroscopy of the sun's atmosphere before it is known
†† on Earth (Lockyer)
1869 Periodic table of the elements (Mendeleev)
1876 Compressed ammonia refrigerator (Linde)
1876 Telephone (Bell)
1879 Electric light (Edison)
1881-1882 Electric generating plant and distribution system built for New York City (Edison)
1883 Krakatau erupts
1884 Rayon (Chardonnet)
1885 Gasoline engine (Benz and Daimler)
1895 X-rays discovered (Roentgen)
1897 Electron discovered (Thompson)
1900-1927 Quantum Mechanics (Planck, Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg)†††††
1903 Wright brothers flight on 12/17
1908 Model T Ford
1908 Tunguska, central Siberia, meteor or comet air explosion on 6/30 estimated at 10-20 megatons
†† measured 5 on Richter scale and destroyed 2000 sqkm of forest at 61 deg N and 102 deg E.
1911 Atomic nucleus discovered (Rutherford)
1912 Tectonic plates and continental drift suggested to explain complementary shapes of some
†† continents and similar organisms on different continents (Wegener)
1915 Einstein publishes on general relativity
1919 Proton discovered (Rutherford)
1920 Radio, first broadcast in US
1920-1940 Glycolysis of glucose to pyruvate (Embden-Myerhof-Parnas)†††††
1922 Discovery of Tutankhamen's tomb (Carter)
1922-1925 Dinosaur eggs discovered
1923 Identification of tooth-decaying bacteria
1923 Theories of acids and bases developed (Bronsted, Lowry)†††††††
1924 Diesel-electic locomotive
1924 Galaxies external to the Milky Way discovered (Hubble)††††††††
1926 First isolation of an enzyme, urease (Sumner)
1926 Liquid fueled rocket (Goddard)
1928 Penicillin discovered (Fleming)
1929 Earth's magnetic field reversals discovered
1929 Red shift discovered, universal expansion (Hubble)
1929 X-rays used to create mutations in fruit flies (Muller)
1929-1942 US Great Depression
1930 Pluto discovered (Tombaugh) not classified as a planet after 2006
1930-1940 Krebs cycle for oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide
1932 Compressed Freon-12 refrigerator (Galson, Nesson)
1932 Neutron discovered (Chadwick)
1935 Douglas DC-3 airplane introduced
1936 Black and white TV, first public broadcast in London
1938 Nylon (du Pont, Carothers)
1939 Turbojet engine (German He-178)
1940 Stone Age paintings found in France's Lascaux cave (from 14,000 BP)
1942 Nuclear reactor and sustainable nuclear fission (Fermi)
1942-1945 German V-2 rocket (von Braun)
1945 Hiroshima atomic bomb on 8/6 (Oppenheimer, Groves)
1945-1950 Calvin-Benson cycle of carbon in photosynthesis
1946 ENIAC electronic digital computer (Mauchly, Eckert)
1947 Bell X-1 rocket plane exceeds the speed of sound
1947 Carbon-14 dating method developed (Libby)
1948 Automatic clothes washers and driers
1948 Transistor (Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley)
1951 Maize genes can jump among chromosomes (McClintock)†††††††††††
1952 Calves grown from frozen semen
1952 Hydrogen bomb and nuclear fusion (Teller)
1953 Watson-Crick DNA model and genetic code concept
1954 Color TV first true broadcast
1955 Boeing 707 jet transport introduced
1955 Microwave oven introduced (Raytheon)
1955 Nuclear submarine, Nautilus (Rickover)
1956 FORTRAN engineering programming language (Backus)†††††††††††††
1956 Recognition of global midocean ridge system and that it is the source of continental drift
1957 Russian Sputnik I space satellite launched
1958 Laser invented (Schawlow, Townes)††††††††††††
1959 COBOL business programming language (Hopper)
1960-1965 Two light reaction model in photosynthesis (Hill, Kok)
1961 First DNA base-paring codon identified (Nirenberg)
1961 Proton gradient is coupled to ATP generation (Mitchell)
1962 Compounds formed from noble gases (Bartlett)
1963 Discovery of a quasar, high emission early galaxies (Schmidt)
1964 High-yield rice launches Green Revolution
1964 Quark theory added to quantum mechanics (Gell-Mann, Zweig)††††
1965 Automatic dish washer††††††
1965 Birth control pills available in US
1965 Cosmic background radiation from Big Bang discovered (Penzias, Wilson)
1965?††††† E-mail useage began in Dept. of Defense (Encarta)
1965?††††† HiFi audio LP records on 12 inch vinyl disks
1967 Discovery of pulsars (neutron stars)††††††††††††††††††††††††††
1967 Human heart transplanted (Barnard)††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
1969 Boeing 747 airplane introduced††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
1969 First gene cloned†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††
1969 Moon landing on 7/20 (Apollo 11, Armstrong and Aldrin)††††††††
1973 Foreign gene added to a bacterium
1973 Nuclear magnetic resonance used for medical diagnosis†††††††††
1974 Intel 8080 microprocessor (Grove)
1975 VCR (video cassette recorder)
1976 First cancer-causing gene identified (p53 mutation?)
1977 Hydrothermal vent communities discovered on ocean floor†††††††
1978 First test-tube baby born
1980 MS-DOS operating system (Gates and Allen)
1980 Theory that meteorite impact wiped out dinosaurs (Alvarez)††††
1981 First cases of AIDS recognized
1982 CD recorded music
1982 CDROM recorded data
1983 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used to clone genes (Mullis)††
1983-1984 HIV isolated
1985 Antarctic ozone hole discovered
1985 DNA sequencing begins (Sanger using manual techniques)
1989 World Wide Web using HTML (Berners-Lee)
1992 Windows 3.1 operating system (Microsoft)
1995 Gene sequence established for the first free-living bacterium, Haemophilus influenzae, which
†† can cause meningitis and deafness (Venter using automation)
1995-2000 Several genomes sequenced, including humans
2000-2100 Expectations:
1. People will continue to want to believe the unknowable and to ignore that which is known.
2. Social security and welfare benefits reduced due to growing elderly population
3. Wars over religion, food, energy and water will intensify due to overpopulation
4. Expansion of nuclear power (fusion?) due to decreasing oil production
5. Public transportation increases, cars decrease
6. Houses decrease in size, with minimal lawns
7. Space exploration is minimal, costly, and will not relieve population growth
8. Human population stabilizes, perhaps decreases after about 2050†††††††††††††
9. Human genome and genetic variability documented with these probable effects:
a. Some effective medical treatments based on genetics
b. Some untreatable conditions defined; e.g., lifespan will increase little (Increased
†††† lifespan will worsen overpopulation.)††††
c. Intellectual variability documented as part genetic and part environmental
d. Education stresses equal opportunities to learn and rewards for learning
e. Advising and advancement based on achievement, not wishful thinking
f.Rational punishments based on genetics and social needs for safety
g. Death penalty for untreatable violence
h. Non-addictive 'happy drugs' marketed to reduce hard drug and alcohol use